‘Space age innovation’

Space Shuttle Atlantis's three Block II RS-25D main engines at liftoff during the launch of STS-110. This image was extracted from engineering motion picture footage taken by a tracking camera. Source URL:  http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2388

The retired-Space Shuttle program (like its predecessor Apollo) ushered much innovation to the public. And, if one were to ‘google’ the terms, nasa spinoff database –one may get lucky enough to see a lot of which many take for granted. The database is chock full with the ‘fruits of our labor;’ we truly hit the proverbial jackpot by going into space. For instance, I draw attention to the utilization of ‘photochemistry;’ to those of us who are not familiar with the terminology I give a quick definition:

Photochemistry is utilizing light (e.g. the Sun) to generate a desired (or needed) outcome. Sounds simple enough. . . .

When we do trek beyond our solar system, it may be necessary to grow foodstuffs. Sunlight has guided our days and helped to fill our nights with dreams. So, in the quest to grow foodstuffs, we are learning to utilize artificial light sources aboard the shuttle and the ISS. The ‘spinoff’ of utilizing light stands to benefit us in many novel ways—

From the NASA technologies website:

Red light-emitting diodes are growing plants in space and healing humans on Earth. The LED technology used in NASA space shuttle plant growth experiments has contributed to the development of medical devices such as award-winning WARP 10, a hand-held, high-intensity, LED unit developed by Quantum Devices Inc. The WARP 10 is intended for the temporary relief of minor muscle and joint pain, arthritis, stiffness, and muscle spasms, and also promotes muscle relaxation and increases local blood circulation. The WARP 10 is being used by the U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Navy as a noninvasive “soldier self-care” device that aids front-line forces with first aid for minor injuries and pain, thereby improving endurance in combat. The next-generation WARP 75 has been used to relieve pain in bone marrow transplant patients, and will be used to combat the symptoms of bone atrophy, multiple sclerosis, diabetic complications, Parkinson’s disease, and in a variety of ocular applications. (Spinoff 2005, 2008)

A major innovation (IMO), however, is the ‘direct’ utilization of light in cancer chemotherapy. A few years back, scientists recognized that certain drugs are active only when shined upon by light—so in other words, if one were to give a cancer patient a drug—it would act against the cancer cells when ‘shined upon.’ Thus, the targeting of cancer cells (in certain cases) became more efficient. (see the cited Nature article at the end of the post)

Most of us utilize space age technology and conjure our own versions of the technology, as well. For instance when one looks at instances of invention, one notices a cluttered path (at times). It is at those times we gain a sense of personal innovation and possibly inspiration. What could be more inspiring than to gain a mastery over the natural world? Science and engineering journals display articles of genius, innovation and refined curiosity.

Often it is not that one has a good idea—we may stumble while implementing the idea. So, given a fertile environment, I contend that we become innovators and tinkerers within our realm. I further contend we can become innovators in wider circle of influence (beyond ourselves) if we desire to do so. The path, then, cannot be so liberally littered by our personal insights as much as getting to the gist of all concerned. Moreover, we need a clarity of purpose.

Ideas become reality in instances where one stands upon the shoulders of giants.

–REFERENCES and READINGS

Specific cancer citation– : Cancer cell-selective in vivo near infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting specific membrane molecules Nature Medicine 17, 1685–1691 (2011) doi:10.1038/nm.2554 (the lead author(s) for the work–Hisataka Kobayashi)

READINGS LIST (in no particular order)

Costa, Liliana, Maria Amparo F Faustino, Maria Graça P M S Neves, Angela Cunha, and Adelaide Almeida. “Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages.” Viruses 4, no. 7 (July 2012): 1034–74. doi:10.3390/v4071034.

Goodrich, R P, N R Yerram, B H Tay-Goodrich, P Forster, M S Platz, C Kasturi, S C Park, N J Aebischer, S Rai, and L Kulaga. “Selective Inactivation of Viruses in the Presence of Human Platelets: UV Sensitization with Psoralen Derivatives.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91, no. 12 (June 07, 1994): 5552–6. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=44034&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.

Kiesslich, Tobias, Anita Gollmer, Tim Maisch, Mark Berneburg, and Kristjan Plaetzer. “A Comprehensive Tutorial on in Vitro Characterization of New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Antitumor Therapy and Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms.” BioMed Research International 2013 (January 2013): 840417. doi:10.1155/2013/840417.

O’Brien, J M, D K Gaffney, T P Wang, and F Sieber. “Merocyanine 540-Sensitized Photoinactivation of Enveloped Viruses in Blood Products: Site and Mechanism of Phototoxicity.” Blood 80, no. 1 (July 01, 1992): 277–85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1319237.

Novo, E, and J Esparza. “Tetracycline-Mediated Photodynamic Inactivation of Animal Viruses.” The Journal of General Virology 45, no. 2 (November 1979): 323–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/120411.

Simonet, Julien, and Christophe Gantzer. “Inactivation of Poliovirus 1 and F-Specific RNA Phages and Degradation of Their Genomes by UV Irradiation at 254 Nanometers.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, no. 12 (December 2006): 7671–7. doi:10.1128/AEM.01106-06.

Vigant, Frederic, Jihye Lee, Axel Hollmann, Lukas B Tanner, Zeynep Akyol Ataman, Tatyana Yun, Guanghou Shui, et al. “A Mechanistic Paradigm for Broad-Spectrum Antivirals That Target Virus-Cell Fusion.” PLoS Pathogens 9, no. 4 (April 2013): e1003297. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003297.

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LUCA—What does it mean and why is it important? Ruminations upon Life’s Origins

The acronym LUCA stands for—Last Universal Common Ancestor. The term is used by astrobiologists and those interested in the evolutionary biology. The geological period of time in which LUCA existed was a point of demarcation from primitive life forms to more-advanced earth-living entities. The importance of LUCA lies in understanding how the three kingdoms of life came from a universal ancestor.

Description from Source: A phylogenetic tree of living things, based on RNA data and proposed by Carl Woese, showing the separation of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

 

Original Source: NASA Astrobiology Institute Attribution: By MPF [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

You might ask, why is LUCA so important? (brief interpretation)

Glancing at the phylogenetic tree one gains a sense that there may be a commonality or root to everything. ( It is not an oversimplification as much as it is a functional, mnemonic device.) So for sake of argument, the center point of the tree may be the point of LUCA—the point where red, black and purple branches form a ‘Y.’ It is at the point where RNA-life may have taken the first steps to ‘current’ DNA/RNA commonality. (It would be obvious—to evolutionary biologists, at least—that gaining an understanding of LUCA is tantamount to taking the next step backward to the origins of life.) The complex machinery in present DNA/RNA is like a ‘black box’ problem—one knows what goes in and what comes out–but the manner (or mechanism) is unclear. LUCA is a point of ‘transcendence,’ it is in essence a step in the evolutionary ladder. (Once the mechanism is discerned, the understanding may be harnessed for the betterment of the human condition.) Current evolutionary paradigms utilize a random mutations as a means by which ‘the paradigm advances.’ However, random mutations may literally take eons of time until the fit survive the next step of evolution.

It may be the case where an understanding of the transcendence of RNA life to DNA/RNA informs the human condition of how to better utilize life for itself and its progeny.

Source for thoughts and further introspection:

Frontiers of Astrobiology, edited by Impey, Lunine and Funes

Cambridge University Press, 2012

 

 

 

Life without mathematics

The following podcast is enlightening:
(from SETI.org)
Most scientists agree with the opinion– without mathematics most of industrialized society would not exist. However, one is apt to read (in the daily newspaper) that U.S. society ranks low in educating its children in mathematics. High school dropouts will leave high school because they could not pass algebra or geometry. (Although one may not know how to understand chaos theory in high school, the GIF below is has a “certain symmetry” which most can appreciate–in my very humble opinion). Is it possible to imagine a world in which no one could appreciate its beauty?
a_trajectory_through_phase_space_in_a_lorenz_attractor

A sample trajectory through phase space is plotted near a Lorenz attractor with σ = 10, ρ = 28, β = 8/3. The color of the solution fades from black to blue as time progresses, and the black dot shows a particle moving along the solution in time. Initial conditions: x(0) = 0, y(0) = 2, z(0) = 20. 0 < t < 35. The 3-dimensional trajectory {x(t), y(t), z(t)} is shown from different angles to demonstrate its structure.

Survival of Life: Something Resembling It–a brief return.

Panspermia is a topic that falls into and out of favor often. It is not that there is no substance to the paradigm, revolutionary and normal science will find other ‘grails’ worthy for investigation. However, the present research problems surrounding panspermia deal in areas of survivability–can life survive long periods of radiation and an extreme cold–or can life survive the multi-megaton impact upon reaching Earth?

Perhaps one measure of how life’s molecularity can survive cometary impacts is the near-extinction event of early Earth history. Dinosaurs became extinct when a large NEO impacted the Yucatan peninsula. Generations afterward, the first mammals took over the Earth–life didn’t quite resemble the previous generations. Genetic analysis seemingly points towards an abrupt but distinct lineage. Thus–it may be posited that life’s molecular nature, once established, is not readily displaced from its ‘beachhead.’

With this prefatory comment in place, I now discuss the issue of comets…

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